The application of mathematics in the field of science has been in place since times immemorial. However, its actual importance and applicability in medical sciences has become more visible in today's world. To understand it medically, one can say that the application of mathematics in medical sciences has been sporadic. The study of mathematics and the subject, in general, has been contributing to biology and the study of life sciences in many ways.
Today, biologists and professionals in the field of medical sciences use the concepts of mathematics, its theorems, and formula, among others in obtaining quantitative measures and analysing their studies in quantity along with quality. Many scientific medical equipments and machines have been designed keeping the applications of mathematics in mind. Biologists use mathematics to derive quantitative data from any medical study, such as estimating the number of genes that are involved in inheriting a particular trail from the parents to the child.
Today, the concepts and theories of mathematics are being applied to almost all aspects of medical sciences. However, there are some fields of study under medical sciences where mathematics has found greater scope. These fields are clinical research, biotechnology, and genetics. To discuss first, let's talk about how mathematics and its sub branches play an important role in the study of genetics.
In the study of genetics, the two most important sub sections of mathematics that play a major role are statistics and probability. Through probability, its formula and applications, people working in genetics understand the mechanism of meiosis, forming of egg cells and the sperm, and the process of inheritance, among others. They also get an understanding of how phenotypes (observable diseases) and genotypes (the DNA sequences) are related to each other through the study of probability distributions. They also conduct the analysis and study of genetic determinants through the applications of statistics and its methods and principles. Owing to this reason, a student who wishes to pursue a higher education degree or course in genetic studies should have studied Mathematics at class 12 level.
Another advantage that the study of mathematics in medicine and biology provides is to mathematical modelers. Mathematical modeling refers to looking and studying the biological systems and the medical phenomena through the study of mathematics by applying its principles and theorems. Mathematics has also shown its worth in testing out new ideas in the field of medicine. This has been or high importance in the study of cancerous and tumor cells. Medical practitioners have been successful in understanding the direction in which cancerous cells potentially grow inside the living body with the help of a model strictly based on mathematics.
Many health organizations are now using online systems and software applications to manage their patient records and keep a check on the remedial steps for each patient, coordinating with practitioners and other hospital staff on a regular basis along with many more things. All these online systems and software applications are developed keeping mathematics as the platform.
In biotechnology as well, mathematics is seen to play a major role. The study of mathematics is needed to understand concepts such as concentration/dilution, calibration, molarity, molality, solution preparation, serial dilution, radioactive decay and decomposition, absorption, and cell growth, among others. In clinical research, the understanding of DNA, thumb impressions, and markups, among others is also carried out based on the study of mathematics.
Looking at the new avenue of career opportunities that these fields provide, many students are now choosing to club together mathematics along with medical sciences to open doors to a new skill set that is much in demand and gives lucrative job options to them. Some of the career options available are in the field of biotechnology, clinical research, and genetics. Thus, a student who wants to pursue a career in any of these mentioned fields should necessarily have studied both mathematics and biological sciences in class 12. In addition to these three core branches, there are many other branches, which are open to students that want to make a career out of this combination. Other such sub branches are biosciences, health professions, investigation and research, quality assurance, quality checks, biopharmaceutical, regulatory sciences, and clinical sciences, among others. Most of these courses are available at the post-graduation level. Thus, a student wanting to pursue a career in mathematical sciences along with biological sciences should take up a basic bachelor of science (B.Sc.) at graduation level in any of the science streams.
Once successfully completing the basic B.Sc., a student can sit in the entrance tests of universities and autonomous institutions that provide courses in these subjects at post-graduation level. However, some universities also provide a direct five-year M.Tech. course in fields such as Biotechnology where graduation and post-graduation are clubbed together, and a student is directly awarded a post-graduation degree after successful complete of the course.
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