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Static GK CLAT 2014

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    Static GK CLAT 2014

    Hi Friends,
    This thread is for Static Gk CLAT 2014.
    This is link to previous one,
    Static GK for CLAT 2013 .
    Do you want a personalized CLAT study plan - http://www.gyancentral.com/forum/law...html#post13239

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    Junior Gyani
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    Re: Static GK CLAT 2014

    First Plan (1951-1956)

    The first Five-year Plan Sought to get country out of the poverty cycle. K.N Rai a young economist involved in drafting the plan, argued that India Should "hasten slowly" for first two decades as a fast rate of development might endanger democracy
    More generally, the first Five-year plan included:
    • Industrial sector
    • Energy and Irrigation
    • Transport and Communications
    • Land rehabilitation
    • Social services
    • Developments of agriculture and community
    • Miscellaneous issues in India
    The target set for the growth in the gross domestic product was 2.1 percent every year. In reality, the actual achieved with regard to gross domestic product was 3.6% per year[6]. This is a clear indication of the success of the first Five-year Plan.
    Some important events that took place during the tenure of the 1st five-year plan: The following Irrigation projects were started during that period:
    • Metttur Dam
    • Hirakud Dam
    • Bhakra Dam.
    Second Plan (1956–1961)

    The plan followed the Mahalanobis model, an economic development model developed by the Indian statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in 1953. The plan attempted to determine the optimal allocation of investment between productive sectors in order to maximise long-run economic growth.

    Hydroelectric power projects and five steel mills at Bhilai, Durgapur, and Rourkela were established. Coal production was increased. More railway lines were added in the north east.
    The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research was established as a research institute. In 1957 a talent search and scholarship program was begun to find talented young students to train for work in nuclear power.
    The total amount allocated under the second five-year plan in India was Rs.48 billion. This amount was allocated among various sectors:
    • Power and irrigation
    • Social services
    • Communications and transport
    • Miscellaneous
    The target growth rate was 4.5% and the actual growth rate was 4.0%
    Third Plan (1961–1966)

    Many primary schools were started in rural areas. In an effort to bring democracy to the grass-root level, Panchayat elections were started and the states were given more development responsibilities.
    State electricity boards and state secondary education boards were formed. States were made responsible for secondary and higher education. State road transportation corporations were formed and local road building became a state responsibility.
    The target growth rate was 5.6%, but the actual growth rate was 2.4%.[6]
    Fourth Plan (1969–1974)

    At this time Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. The Indira Gandhi government nationalised 14 major Indian banks and the Green Revolution in India advanced agriculture. In addition, the situation in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) was becoming dire as the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War took funds earmarked for industrial development had to be diverted for the war effort. India also performed the Smiling Buddha underground nuclear test in 1974, partially in response to the United States deployment of the Seventh Fleet in the Bay of Bengal. The fleet had been deployed to warn India against attacking West Pakistan and extending the war.
    The target growth rate was 5.6%, but the actual growth rate was 3.3%.[6]
    Fifth Plan (1974–1979)

    The fifth Five-year Plan laid stress on employment, poverty alleviation (Garabi Hatao), and justice. The plan also focused onself-reliance in agricultural production and defence. In 1978 the newly elected Morarji Desai government rejected the plan. The Electricity Supply Act was amended in 1975, which enabled the central government to enter into power generation and transmission.[10][citation needed]
    The Indian national highway system was introduced and many roads were widened to accommodate the increasing traffic. Tourism also expanded.
    The target growth rate was 4.4% and the actual growth rate was 5.0.[6
    Sixth Plan (1980–1985)

    The sixth Five-year Plan marked the beginning of economic liberalisation. Price controls were eliminated and ration shops were closed. This led to an increase in food prices and an increase in the cost of living.
    Family planning was also expanded in order to prevent overpopulation
    The target growth rate was 5.2% and the actual growth rate was 5.4%

    Seventh Plan (1985–1990)

    The thrust areas of the seventh Five-year Plan were:
    • Social Justice
    • Removal of oppression of the weak
    • Using modern technology
    • Agricultural development
    • Anti-poverty programs
    • Full supply of food, clothing, and shelter
    • Increasing productivity of small- and large-scale farmers
    • Making India an Independent Economy
    Based on a 15-year period of striving towards steady growth, the seventh plan was focused on achieving the pre-requisites of self-sustaining growth by the year 2000. The plan expected a growth in labour force by 39 million people and employment was expected to grow at the rate of 4% per year.
    Some of the expected outcomes of the Seventh Five Year Plan India are given below:Under the seventh Five-year Plan, India strove to bring about a self-sustained economy in the country with valuable contributions from voluntary agencies and the general populace.
    The target growth rate was 5.0% and the actual growth rate was 6.01%.[11]
    Eighth plan 1992-97:

    =Eighth Plan (1992–1 1989–91 was a period of economic instability in India and hence no five-year plan was implemented. Between 1990 and 1992, there were only Annual Plans. In 1991, India faced a crisis in Foreign Exchange (Forex) reserves, left with reserves of only about US$1 billion. Thus, under pressure, the country took the risk of reforming the socialist economy. P.V. Narasimha Rao was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India and head of Congress Party, and led one of the most important administrations in India's modern history overseeing a major economic transformation and several incidents affecting national security. At that time Dr. Manmohan Singh (currently, Prime Minister of India) launched India's free market reforms that brought the nearly bankrupt nation back from the edge. It was the beginning of privatisation and liberalisation in India.
    Modernization of industries was a major highlight of the Eighth Plan. Under this plan, the gradual opening of the Indian economy was undertaken to correct the burgeoning deficit and foreign debt. Meanwhile India became a member of the World Trade Organization on 1 January 1995.This plan can be termed as Rao and Manmohan model of Economic development. The major objectives included, controlling population growth, poverty reduction, employment generation, strengthening the infrastructure, Institutional building, tourism management, Human Resource development, Involvement of Panchayat raj, Nagar Palikas, N.G.O'S and Decentralisation and people's participation. Energy was given priority with 26.6% of the outlay. An average annual growth rate of 6.78% against the target 5.6%[6] was achieved.
    To achieve the target of an average of 5.6% per annum, investment of 23.2% of the gross domestic product was required. The incremental capital ratio is 4.1.The saving for investment was to come from domestic sources and foreign sources, with the rate of domestic saving at 21.6% of gross domestic production and of foreign saving at 1.6% of gross domestic production. [12]
    Ninth Plan (1998 - 2002):

    Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the Prime Minister of India during the Ninth Five Year Plan.

    New implementation measures in the form of Special Action Plans (SAPs) were evolved during the Ninth Five Year Plan to fulfill targets within the stipulated time with adequate resources. The SAPs covered the areas of social infrastructure, agriculture, information technology and Water policy.

    The Ninth Five Year Plan had a total Public Sector Plan outlay of ₹ 8,59,200 crores. The Ninth Five Year Plan also saw a hike of 48% in terms of plan expenditure and 33 % in terms of the plan outlay in comparison to that of the Eighth Five Year Plan. In the total outlay, the share of the Centre was approximately 57% while it was 43% for the States and the Union Territories.

    Objectives
    The main objective of the Ninth Five Year Plan was to correct historical inequalities and increase the economic growth in the country. Other aspects which constituted the Ninth Five Year Plan were as follows:
    1. Population control.
    2. Generating employment by giving priority to agriculture and rural development.
    3. Reduction of poverty.
    4. Ensuring proper availability of food and water for the poor.
    5. Availability of primary health care facilities and other basic necessities.
    6. Primary education to all children in the country.
    7. Empowering the socially disadvantaged classes like Scheduled castes, Scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
    8. Developing self reliance in terms of agriculture.
    9. Acceleration in the growth rate of the economy with the help of stable prices.
    Strategies
    • Structural transformations and developments in the Indian economy.
    • New initiatives and initiation of corrective steps to meet the challenges in the economy of the country.
    • Efficient use of scarce resources to ensure rapid growth.
    • Combination of public and private support to increase employment.
    • Enhancing high rates of export to achieve self reliance.
    • Providing services like electricity, telecommunication, railways etc.
    • Special plans to empower the socially disadvantaged classes of the country.
    • Involvement and participation of Panchayati Raj institutions/bodies and Nagar Palikas in the development process.
    Performance
    • The Ninth Five Year Plan achieved a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 5.4% against a target of 6.5%
    • The agriculture industry grew at a rate of 2.1% against the target of 4.2%
    • The industrial growth in the country was 4.5% which was higher than that of the target of 3%
    • The service industry had a growth rate of 7.8%.
    • An average annual growth rate of 6.7% was reached

    Tenth Plan (2002–2007)
    The main objectives of the tenth Five Year Plan of India were:
    • Attain 8% GDP growth per year.
    • Reduction of poverty rate by 5 percentage points by 2007.
    • Providing gainful and high-quality employment at least to the addition to the labor force.
    • Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50% by 2007.
    • 20-point program was introduced.
    Target growth:8.1% Growth achieved:7.7%
    • Expenditure of 43825 crores for 10th five year plans
    Eleventh plan ( 2007-12)

    1. Income & Poverty
      • Accelerate GDP growth from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th Plan in order to double per capita income by 2016–17
      • Increase agricultural GDP growth rate to 4% per year to ensure a broader spread of benefits
      • Create 70 million new work opportunities.
      • Reduce educated unemployment to below 5%.
      • Raise real wage rate of unskilled workers by 20 percent.
      • Reduce the headcount ratio of consumption poverty by 10 percentage points.
    2. Education
      • Reduce dropout rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003–04 to 20% by 2011–12
      • Develop minimum standards of educational attainment in elementary school, and by regular testing monitor effectiveness of education to ensure quality
      • Increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years or above to 85%
      • Lower gender gap in literacy to 10 percentage point
      • Increase the percentage of each cohort going to higher education from the present 10% to 15% by the end of the plan.
    3. Health
    4. Women and Children
      • Raise the sex ratio for age group 0–6 to 935 by 2011–12 and to 950 by 2016–17
      • Ensure that at least 33 percent of the direct and indirect beneficiaries of all government schemes are women and girl children
      • Ensure that all children enjoy a safe childhood, without any compulsion to work
    5. Infrastructure
      • Ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL households by 2009 and round-the-clock power.
      • Ensure all-weather road connection to all habitation with population 1000 and above (500 in hilly and tribal areas) by 2009, and ensure coverage of all significant habitation by 2015
      • Connect every village by telephone by November 2007 and provide broadband connectivity to all villages by 2012
      • Provide homestead sites to all by 2012 and step up the pace of house construction for rural poor to cover all the poor by 2016–17
    6. Environment
      • Increase forest and tree cover by 5 percentage points.
      • Attain WHO standards of air quality in all major cities by 2011–12.
      • Treat all urban waste water by 2011–12 to clean river waters.
      • Increase energy efficiency by 20%
    Target growth:8.6% Growth achieved:7.9%
    Twelfth Plan (2012–2017)

    The Twelfth Five-Year Plan of the Government of India has decided for the growth rate at 8.2% but National Development Council (NDC) on 27 Dec 2012 approved 8% growth rate for 12th five-year plan.
    The government intends to reduce poverty by 10 per cent during the 12th Five-Year Plan. Mr Ahluwalia said, “We aim to reduce poverty estimates by 9 per cent annually on a sustainable basis during the Plan period.”
    Earlier, addressing a conference of State Planning Boards and Planning departments, he said the rate of decline in poverty doubled during the 11th Plan. The commission had said, while using the Tendulkar poverty line, the rate of reduction in the five years between 2004–05 and 2009–10, was about 1.5 percentage points each year, which was twice that when compared to the period between 1993-95 to 2004-05.[
  4. #3
    Junior Gyani
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    Re: Static GK CLAT 2014

    First Plan (1951-1956)

    The first Five-year Plan Sought to get country out of the poverty cycle. K.N Rai a young economist involved in drafting the plan, argued that India Should "hasten slowly" for first two decades as a fast rate of development might endanger democracy
    More generally, the first Five-year plan included:
    • Industrial sector
    • Energy and Irrigation
    • Transport and Communications
    • Land rehabilitation
    • Social services
    • Developments of agriculture and community
    • Miscellaneous issues in India
    The target set for the growth in the gross domestic product was 2.1 percent every year. In reality, the actual achieved with regard to gross domestic product was 3.6% per year[6]. This is a clear indication of the success of the first Five-year Plan.
    Some important events that took place during the tenure of the 1st five-year plan: The following Irrigation projects were started during that period:
    • Metttur Dam
    • Hirakud Dam
    • Bhakra Dam.
    Second Plan (1956–1961)

    The plan followed the Mahalanobis model, an economic development model developed by the Indian statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis in 1953. The plan attempted to determine the optimal allocation of investment between productive sectors in order to maximise long-run economic growth.

    Hydroelectric power projects and five steel mills at Bhilai, Durgapur, and Rourkela were established. Coal production was increased. More railway lines were added in the north east.
    The Tata Institute of Fundamental Research was established as a research institute. In 1957 a talent search and scholarship program was begun to find talented young students to train for work in nuclear power.
    The total amount allocated under the second five-year plan in India was Rs.48 billion. This amount was allocated among various sectors:
    • Power and irrigation
    • Social services
    • Communications and transport
    • Miscellaneous
    The target growth rate was 4.5% and the actual growth rate was 4.0%
    Third Plan (1961–1966)

    Many primary schools were started in rural areas. In an effort to bring democracy to the grass-root level, Panchayat elections were started and the states were given more development responsibilities.
    State electricity boards and state secondary education boards were formed. States were made responsible for secondary and higher education. State road transportation corporations were formed and local road building became a state responsibility.
    The target growth rate was 5.6%, but the actual growth rate was 2.4%.[6]
    Fourth Plan (1969–1974)

    At this time Indira Gandhi was the Prime Minister. The Indira Gandhi government nationalised 14 major Indian banks and the Green Revolution in India advanced agriculture. In addition, the situation in East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) was becoming dire as the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War took funds earmarked for industrial development had to be diverted for the war effort. India also performed the Smiling Buddha underground nuclear test in 1974, partially in response to the United States deployment of the Seventh Fleet in the Bay of Bengal. The fleet had been deployed to warn India against attacking West Pakistan and extending the war.
    The target growth rate was 5.6%, but the actual growth rate was 3.3%.[6]
    Fifth Plan (1974–1979)

    The fifth Five-year Plan laid stress on employment, poverty alleviation (Garabi Hatao), and justice. The plan also focused onself-reliance in agricultural production and defence. In 1978 the newly elected Morarji Desai government rejected the plan. The Electricity Supply Act was amended in 1975, which enabled the central government to enter into power generation and transmission.[10][citation needed]
    The Indian national highway system was introduced and many roads were widened to accommodate the increasing traffic. Tourism also expanded.
    The target growth rate was 4.4% and the actual growth rate was 5.0.[6
    Sixth Plan (1980–1985)

    The sixth Five-year Plan marked the beginning of economic liberalisation. Price controls were eliminated and ration shops were closed. This led to an increase in food prices and an increase in the cost of living.
    Family planning was also expanded in order to prevent overpopulation
    The target growth rate was 5.2% and the actual growth rate was 5.4%

    Seventh Plan (1985–1990)

    The thrust areas of the seventh Five-year Plan were:
    • Social Justice
    • Removal of oppression of the weak
    • Using modern technology
    • Agricultural development
    • Anti-poverty programs
    • Full supply of food, clothing, and shelter
    • Increasing productivity of small- and large-scale farmers
    • Making India an Independent Economy
    Based on a 15-year period of striving towards steady growth, the seventh plan was focused on achieving the pre-requisites of self-sustaining growth by the year 2000. The plan expected a growth in labour force by 39 million people and employment was expected to grow at the rate of 4% per year.
    Some of the expected outcomes of the Seventh Five Year Plan India are given below:Under the seventh Five-year Plan, India strove to bring about a self-sustained economy in the country with valuable contributions from voluntary agencies and the general populace.
    The target growth rate was 5.0% and the actual growth rate was 6.01%.[11]
    Eighth plan 1992-97:

    =Eighth Plan (1992–1 1989–91 was a period of economic instability in India and hence no five-year plan was implemented. Between 1990 and 1992, there were only Annual Plans. In 1991, India faced a crisis in Foreign Exchange (Forex) reserves, left with reserves of only about US$1 billion. Thus, under pressure, the country took the risk of reforming the socialist economy. P.V. Narasimha Rao was the ninth Prime Minister of the Republic of India and head of Congress Party, and led one of the most important administrations in India's modern history overseeing a major economic transformation and several incidents affecting national security. At that time Dr. Manmohan Singh (currently, Prime Minister of India) launched India's free market reforms that brought the nearly bankrupt nation back from the edge. It was the beginning of privatisation and liberalisation in India.
    Modernization of industries was a major highlight of the Eighth Plan. Under this plan, the gradual opening of the Indian economy was undertaken to correct the burgeoning deficit and foreign debt. Meanwhile India became a member of the World Trade Organization on 1 January 1995.This plan can be termed as Rao and Manmohan model of Economic development. The major objectives included, controlling population growth, poverty reduction, employment generation, strengthening the infrastructure, Institutional building, tourism management, Human Resource development, Involvement of Panchayat raj, Nagar Palikas, N.G.O'S and Decentralisation and people's participation. Energy was given priority with 26.6% of the outlay. An average annual growth rate of 6.78% against the target 5.6%[6] was achieved.
    To achieve the target of an average of 5.6% per annum, investment of 23.2% of the gross domestic product was required. The incremental capital ratio is 4.1.The saving for investment was to come from domestic sources and foreign sources, with the rate of domestic saving at 21.6% of gross domestic production and of foreign saving at 1.6% of gross domestic production. [12]
    Ninth Plan (1998 - 2002):

    Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the Prime Minister of India during the Ninth Five Year Plan.

    New implementation measures in the form of Special Action Plans (SAPs) were evolved during the Ninth Five Year Plan to fulfill targets within the stipulated time with adequate resources. The SAPs covered the areas of social infrastructure, agriculture, information technology and Water policy.

    The Ninth Five Year Plan had a total Public Sector Plan outlay of ₹ 8,59,200 crores. The Ninth Five Year Plan also saw a hike of 48% in terms of plan expenditure and 33 % in terms of the plan outlay in comparison to that of the Eighth Five Year Plan. In the total outlay, the share of the Centre was approximately 57% while it was 43% for the States and the Union Territories.

    Objectives
    The main objective of the Ninth Five Year Plan was to correct historical inequalities and increase the economic growth in the country. Other aspects which constituted the Ninth Five Year Plan were as follows:
    1. Population control.
    2. Generating employment by giving priority to agriculture and rural development.
    3. Reduction of poverty.
    4. Ensuring proper availability of food and water for the poor.
    5. Availability of primary health care facilities and other basic necessities.
    6. Primary education to all children in the country.
    7. Empowering the socially disadvantaged classes like Scheduled castes, Scheduled tribes and other backward classes.
    8. Developing self reliance in terms of agriculture.
    9. Acceleration in the growth rate of the economy with the help of stable prices.
    Strategies
    • Structural transformations and developments in the Indian economy.
    • New initiatives and initiation of corrective steps to meet the challenges in the economy of the country.
    • Efficient use of scarce resources to ensure rapid growth.
    • Combination of public and private support to increase employment.
    • Enhancing high rates of export to achieve self reliance.
    • Providing services like electricity, telecommunication, railways etc.
    • Special plans to empower the socially disadvantaged classes of the country.
    • Involvement and participation of Panchayati Raj institutions/bodies and Nagar Palikas in the development process.
    Performance
    • The Ninth Five Year Plan achieved a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 5.4% against a target of 6.5%
    • The agriculture industry grew at a rate of 2.1% against the target of 4.2%
    • The industrial growth in the country was 4.5% which was higher than that of the target of 3%
    • The service industry had a growth rate of 7.8%.
    • An average annual growth rate of 6.7% was reached

    Tenth Plan (2002–2007)
    The main objectives of the tenth Five Year Plan of India were:
    • Attain 8% GDP growth per year.
    • Reduction of poverty rate by 5 percentage points by 2007.
    • Providing gainful and high-quality employment at least to the addition to the labor force.
    • Reduction in gender gaps in literacy and wage rates by at least 50% by 2007.
    • 20-point program was introduced.
    Target growth:8.1% Growth achieved:7.7%
    • Expenditure of 43825 crores for 10th five year plans
    Eleventh plan ( 2007-12)

    1. Income & Poverty
      • Accelerate GDP growth from 8% to 10% and then maintain at 10% in the 12th Plan in order to double per capita income by 2016–17
      • Increase agricultural GDP growth rate to 4% per year to ensure a broader spread of benefits
      • Create 70 million new work opportunities.
      • Reduce educated unemployment to below 5%.
      • Raise real wage rate of unskilled workers by 20 percent.
      • Reduce the headcount ratio of consumption poverty by 10 percentage points.
    2. Education
      • Reduce dropout rates of children from elementary school from 52.2% in 2003–04 to 20% by 2011–12
      • Develop minimum standards of educational attainment in elementary school, and by regular testing monitor effectiveness of education to ensure quality
      • Increase literacy rate for persons of age 7 years or above to 85%
      • Lower gender gap in literacy to 10 percentage point
      • Increase the percentage of each cohort going to higher education from the present 10% to 15% by the end of the plan.
    3. Health
    4. Women and Children
      • Raise the sex ratio for age group 0–6 to 935 by 2011–12 and to 950 by 2016–17
      • Ensure that at least 33 percent of the direct and indirect beneficiaries of all government schemes are women and girl children
      • Ensure that all children enjoy a safe childhood, without any compulsion to work
    5. Infrastructure
      • Ensure electricity connection to all villages and BPL households by 2009 and round-the-clock power.
      • Ensure all-weather road connection to all habitation with population 1000 and above (500 in hilly and tribal areas) by 2009, and ensure coverage of all significant habitation by 2015
      • Connect every village by telephone by November 2007 and provide broadband connectivity to all villages by 2012
      • Provide homestead sites to all by 2012 and step up the pace of house construction for rural poor to cover all the poor by 2016–17
    6. Environment
      • Increase forest and tree cover by 5 percentage points.
      • Attain WHO standards of air quality in all major cities by 2011–12.
      • Treat all urban waste water by 2011–12 to clean river waters.
      • Increase energy efficiency by 20%
    Target growth:8.6% Growth achieved:7.9%
    Twelfth Plan (2012–2017)

    The Twelfth Five-Year Plan of the Government of India has decided for the growth rate at 8.2% but National Development Council (NDC) on 27 Dec 2012 approved 8% growth rate for 12th five-year plan.
    The government intends to reduce poverty by 10 per cent during the 12th Five-Year Plan. Mr Ahluwalia said, “We aim to reduce poverty estimates by 9 per cent annually on a sustainable basis during the Plan period.”
    Earlier, addressing a conference of State Planning Boards and Planning departments, he said the rate of decline in poverty doubled during the 11th Plan. The commission had said, while using the Tendulkar poverty line, the rate of reduction in the five years between 2004–05 and 2009–10, was about 1.5 percentage points each year, which was twice that when compared to the period between 1993-95 to 2004-05.[
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