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Important Articles and Amendments of the Indian Constitution for CLAT

This is a discussion on Important Articles and Amendments of the Indian Constitution for CLAT within the Legal Aptitude preparation forums, part of the Law Preparation category; ...

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    Important Articles and Amendments of the Indian Constitution for CLAT

    Important Articles of the Indian Constitution:


    Indian constitution is the largest constitution in the world it contains originally 395 Articles, 22 parts, and 8 schedule. And presently it has 448 articles, 22 parts, and 12 schedules.
    Ø Part 1- Art. 1 to art. 4:
    · Art.1- Name and territory of the union.
    · Art.2 - Admission and Establishment of the new state.
    · Art.3- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.
    Ø Part 2- Art. 5 to art. 11:
    · Art.5 - Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
    · Art.6- Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
    · Art.10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
    · Art.11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
    Ø Part 3- Art.12 to art.35
    · Art.12- Definition of the state
    · Art.13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
    Originally, constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there is only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.
    Some important Fundamental Rights are as:
    · Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
    · Art.14- Equality before the law.
    · Art.15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
    · Art.16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
    · Art.17- Abolition of the untouchability.
    · Art.18- Abolition of titles

    · Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
    · Art.19 guarantees to all the citizens the six rights
    · (a) Right to freedom of speech and expression.
    · (b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
    · (c) Right to form associations or unions.
    · (d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.

    · (e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
    · (f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business.
    · Art.20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
    · Art.21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
    · Art .22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
    · Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
    · Art. 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
    · Art.24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines. Under age of 14.
    Ø Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
    · Art.25- Freedom of conscience and free profession , practice and propagation of religion.
    · Art.26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
    · Art.27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
    · Art.28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
    Ø Cultural and Educational Rights:Art.29 & art. 30
    · Art. 29- Protection of interest of minorities.
    · Art.30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
    Ø Art.32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.

    Ø Part.4 Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to art. 51

    · Art.36- Definition
    · Art.37- Application of DPSP
    · Art.39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
    · Art.40- Organisation of village panchayat
    · Art.41- Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
    · Art.43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
    · Art.43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.
    · Art.44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
    · Art.45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
    · Art.46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST,and OBC.
    · Art.47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public heath.
    · Art.48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
    · Art.49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
    · Art.50- Separation of judiciary from executive.
    · Art.51- Promotion of international peace and security.
    · Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A
    · It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.
    · Part.5- The Union Executive:
    · Art.52- The President of india
    · Art.53- Executive Power of the union.
    · Art.54- Election of President
    · Art.61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
    · Art.63- The Vice-president of India.
    · Art.64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the council of States.
    · Art.66-Election of Vice-president.
    · Art.72-Pradoning powers of President.
    · Art.74- Council of minister to aid and advice President.
    · Art.76- Attorney-General for India.
    · Art.79- Constitution of Parliament
    · Art.80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
    · Art.81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
    · Art.83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
    · Art.93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
    · Art.105- Powers, Privileges,etc of the House of Parliament.
    · Art.109- Special procedure in respects of money bills
    · Art.110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
    · Art.112- Annual Financial Budget.
    · Art.114-Appropriation Bills.
    · Art.123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
    · Art.124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
    · Art.125- Salaries of Judges.
    · Art.126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
    · Art.127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
    · Art.128-Attendence of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.
    · Art.129- Supreme court to be court of Record.
    · Art.130- Seat of the Supreme court.
    · Art.136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.
    · Art.137- Review of judgements or orders by the Supreme court.
    · Art.141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
    · Art.148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
    · Art.149- Duties and Powers of CAG.
    · Art.153- Governors of State
    · Art.154- Executive Powers of Governor.
    · Art.161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
    · Art.165-Advocate-General of the State.
    · Art.213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
    · Art.214- High Courts for states.
    · Art.215- High Courts to be court of record.
    · Art.226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
    · Art.233- Appoinment of District judges.
    · Art.235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.
    · Art.243A- Gram Sabha
    · Art.243B- Constitution of Panchayats
    · Art.280- Finance Commission
    · Art.300-A- Right to property.
    · Art.301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
    · Art.302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commersce, and intercourse.
    · Art.312- All- India-Service.
    · Art.315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states
    · Art.320- Functions of Public Service Commission.
    · Art.323A- Administrative Tribunals
    · Art.324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
    · Art.325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
    · Art.326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
    · Art.338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
    · Art.340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
    · Art.343- Official languages of the Union.
    · Art.345- Official languages or languages of a states.
    · Art.348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.
    · Art.351-Directive for development of the hindi languages.
    · Art.352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
    · Art.356- State Emergency
    · Art.360- Financial Emergency
    · Art.361- Protection of President and Governors
    · Art.368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.
    · Art.370-Special provision of J&K.
    · Art.393-Constituion of India.

    Sources: Indian Polity, M. Laxmikanth, Lucent G.K
    Last edited by Sunny12; 12-26-2012 at 04:03 AM.
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    Schedules of the Indian Constitution

    There are Twelve Schedules to the Constitution.
    First Schedule (under Articles 1 and 4) gives a list of the States and Territories comprising the Union. States.

    Second Schedule under Arts. 59(3), 65(3), 75(6), 97, 125, 148(3), 158(3) consists of 5 Parts, A to E.
    Salary of President, Governors, Chief Judges, Judges of High Court and Supreme court, Comptroller and Auditor General

    Third Schedule (under Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219) contains forms of Oaths and Affirmations.

    Fourth Schedule (under Articles 4(1) and (20)) allocates seats for each State and Union Territory, in the Council of States.

    Fifth Schedule (under Articles 244(1) provides for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas. This schedule
    provides for amendment by a simple majority of Parliament and takes it out of the ambit of Article 368 (Amendment of the Constitution).

    Sixth Schedule (under Articles 214(2) and 275(1)) Provisions for administration of Tribal Area in Asom, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram & Arunachal Pradesh

    Seventh Schedule (under Article 246) Gives allocation of powers and functions between Union & States. It contains 3 lists
    1. Union List (For central Govt) 97 Subjects.
    2. States List (Powers of State Govt) 66 subjects
    3. Concurrent List (Both Union & States) 47 subjects.

    Eighth Schedule (under Articles 344(1) and 351(1) gives a lot of 18 languages recognised by the Constitution : 1. Assamese, 2. Bengali, 3. Gujarati, 4. Hindi, 5. Kannada, 6. Kashmiri, 7. Malayalam, 8. Marathi, 9. Oriya, 10. Punjabi, 11. Sanskrit, 12. Sindhi, 13. Tamil, 14. Telugu, 15, Urdu, 16. Konkani, 17. Manipuri, 18. Nepali.

    Ninth Schedule (under Article 31(B) Added by Ist amendment in 1951. Contains acts & orders related to land tenure, land tax, railways, industries.{Right of property not a fundamental right now}

    Tenth Schedule (under Articles 101, 102, 191 and 192). It contains the Anti-defection Act.

    Eleventh Schedule (under Article 243 G) By 73rd amendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Panchayati Raj.

    Twelfth Schedule By 74thamendment in 1992. Contains provisions of Municipal Corporation.
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    Important amendments to the Indian Constitution

    Following is the list of all the important amendments to the Indian Constitution(Important for AILET 2013)

    The first Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution was made in the year 1951
    According to it, Articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 376 were amended and Articles 31A and 3IB inserted and Ninth Schedule was added.

    The Constitution (24th Amendment) Act, 1971: It affirmed the power of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution. After this amendment, the President is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill. Education was transferred to the Concurrent List by this amendment.

    The Constitution (31st Amendment) Act, 1973: increased the elective strength of the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545. Under the Act, the upper limit of representatives of the States goes up from 500 to 525 and that of the Union Territories decreases from 25 to 20.

    The Constitution (36th Amendment) Act, 1975: By this Act, Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union.

    The Constitution (37th Amendment) Act, 1975: was passed by Parliament on April 26, 1975, to provide for a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers to Arunachal Pradesh, the country’s north-easternmost Union Territory.

    The Constitution (39th Amendment) Act, 1975: The Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha on August 7 and received Presidential assent on August 9,1975. The Act places beyond challenge in courts the election to Parliament of a person holding the office of Prime Minister or Speaker and the election of President and Vice-President.

    The Constitution (40th Amendment) Act, 1976: This Amendment has a three-fold objective: (1) It places beyond challenge in courts some major Central laws; (2) It gives similar protection to several State enactments, mostly relating to land legislation, by including them in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution; and (3) It provides that the limits of the territorial waters, the Continental Shelf, the Exclusive Economic Zone and the maritime zones of India shall be specified from time to time by law made by Parliament.
    The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976: It was enacted during the period of internal emergency. It was passed by Parliament on November 11, 1976 and received Presidential assent on December 18, 1976.

    The Amendment established beyond doubt the supremacy of Parliament over the other wings of Government; gave the Directive Principles precedence over the Fundamental Rights; enumerated for the first time a set of ten Fundamental Duties. It further imposed limits on the power and jurisdiction of the judiciary; raised the term of the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha from five to six years; authorised the use of Central armed forces in any State to deal with law and order problems, made the President bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers and envisaged the establishment of administrative tribunals for service matters of Government employees and also other tribunals for economic offences. The Act also clearly laid down that no Constitutional Amendment could be questioned in any court of law.

    The Constitution (43rd Amendment) Act, 1978: It received the Presidential assent on April 13, 1978. This Act repeals the obnoxious provisions of the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act passed during the Emergency. It restores civil liberties by deleting Article 3ID which gave powers to Parliament to curtail even legitimate trade union activity under the guise of legislation for the prevention of anti-national activities. The new law, which was ratified by more than half of the States in accordance with the Constitution, also restores legislative powers to the States to make appropriate provision for anti-national activities consistent with the Fundamental Rights. Under the Act, the judiciary has also been restored to its rightful place. The Supreme Court will now have power to invalidate State laws, a power taken away by the 42nd Amendment Act. The High Courts will also be able to go into the question of constitutional validity of Central laws thereby enabling persons living in distant places to obtain speedy justice without having to come to the Supreme Court.

    The Constitution (44th Amendment) Act, 1978: The Constitution (45 th Amendment) Bill, re-numbered as the 44th Amendment came into force on April 30, 1979, when the President gave his assent. The Act removes major distortions in the Constitution introduced during the Emergency. The duration of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies has been reduced from six to five years—the normal term which was extended during the Emergencyunder the 42nd Amendment to achieve some political purposes. The Right to Property ceases to be a Fundamental Right and becomes only a legal right according to the Constitution 44th Amendment. The Act also extends, for the first time since independence, constitutional protection for publication of the proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures, except in cases where it is proved to be “malicious”. Another important feature of the Act is that any proclamation of Emergency need henceforward, be issued by the President only after receiving the advice of the Cabinet as a whole in writing. The President will not be called upon to act on the basis of advice by the Prime Minister on his own without consulting his Cabinet. Other safeguards provide that the proclamation will have to be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the members of both Houses of Parliament within a month. The 44th Amendment provides safeguards against future subversion of the Constitution for establishing an authoritarian regime. It contains provisions which are designed to make it impossible to impose the kind of emergency the country had experienced for 19 months.

    The Constitution (45th Amendment) Act, 1980: The Act extends reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in Parliament and the State Assemblies and the representation of Anglo-Indians by nomination for a further period of 10 years.

    The Constitution (46th Amendment) Bill, 1982: It seeks to authorise the government to prepare an authoritative text of the Constitution, in Hindi.

    The Constitution (52nd Amendment) Act, 1985: The Act has made defection to another party, after elections illegal. Any member defecting to another party after elections will be disqualified from being member of Parliament or State Legislature.

    The Constitution (53rd Amendment) Act, 1986: It confers Statehood on Mizoram and ensures against unnecessary interference by the Central Government with the laws relating to spheres of social relationship and community conduct applicable to Mizoram.

    The Constitution (54th Amendment) Act, 1986: It enhances the salaries of Judges of High Courts and Supreme Court of India. The salary of Chief Justice of India will be Rs 10,000; Chief Justice of High Courts Rs 9000; Judges of Supreme Court Rs 9000; and Judges of High Courts Rs 8000.

    The Constitution (55th Amendment) Act, 1987: It grants Statehood to Arunachal Pradesh which consequently became the 24th State of the Indian Union.

    The Constitution (56th Amendment) Act, 1987: It confers Statehood on Goa and forms a new Union Territory of Daman and Diu. Goa thus became the 25th State of the Indian Republic.

    The Constitution (57th Amendment) Act, 1987: It made a special provision for the setting up of the new State of Goa. Consequently Daman and Diu were separated from the former to form a Union Territory.

    The Constitution (58th Amendment) Act, 1988: It provides for special arrangements with regard to reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya. By amending Article 322 the adjustment of seats has been frozen until 2000 A.D.

    The Constitution (59th Amendment) Act, 1988: It empowered the Central Government to impose Emergency in Punjab when deemed necessary. Under the amendment, President’s rule can be extended upto three years. Earlier maximum period was two years.
    The Constitution (61st Amendment) Act, 1989: It lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.

    The Constitution (62nd Amendment) Act, 1989: It provided for the extension by another 10 years of reservation of seats in the Parliament and State Assemblies for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes and reservation for Anglo Indian community by nomination.

    The Constitution (63rd Amendment) Act, 1989: It repealed Amendment 59 which empowered the government to impose emergency in Punjab.

    The Constitution (64th Amendment) Act, 1990: It extended the President’s rule in Punjab by six months.

    The Constitution (66th Amendment) Act, 1990: To bring land reforms within the purview of 9th Schedule of the Constitution.

    The Constitution (69th Amendment) Act, 1991: Delhi made National Capital Region. The Act also made provision for Legislative assembly and a council of ministers for Delhi.

    The Constitution (70th Amendment) Act, 1992: Before this act was made Article 54 relating to the election of the President provided for an electoral college consisting only of the elected members of Parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of the States (not of Union Territories). The amendment provide for inclusion of members of legislature of Pondicherry and Delhi.

    The Constitution (71st Amendment) Act, 1992: The act amends the 8th Schedule to the Constitution to include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali Languages in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.

    The Constitution (72nd Amendment) Act, 1992: To make temporary provision for the determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the State assembly of Tripura, until the re-adjustment of seats is made on the basis of the first census after the year 2000 under article 170 of the Constitution.

    The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992: To ensure direct election to all seats in Panchayats; to reserve seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population; and for reservation of not less than one third of the seats in Panchayats for women.

    The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992: was made to ensure direct election to all seats in Nagarpalikas and Municipalities.

    The Constitution (75th Amendment) Act 1994: It provides for setting up of State-level Rent Tribunals to exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except that of the Supreme Court, under Article 136 of the Constitution.

    The Constitution (76th Amendment) Act, 1994: It relates to the Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutes and of appointments or posts in the Services under a State, for Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Supreme Court had ruled on November 16, 1992, that the total reservations under Article 16(40) of the Constitution should not exceed 50 per cent.
    The Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995: According to this Act, the Government have decided to continue the existing policy of reservation in promotion for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

    The Constitution (78th Amendment) Act, 1995: It includes land reform laws in the Ninth Schedule so that they cannot be challenged before the courts.

    The Constitution (79th Amendment) Act, 1999: It extends the reservation of seats for SC, ST and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for next 10 years.

    The Constitution (80th Amendment) Act, 2000: It deals with an alternative scheme for sharing taxes between the Union and the States.

    The Constitution (81st Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that the unfilled vacancies of a year reserved for SC/ST kept for being filled up in a year as per Article 16, shall be considered separately for filling vacancies in the succeeding year and the previous list will not be considered for filling the 50% quota of the respective year.

    The Constitution (82nd Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that nothing in the Article 355 shall prevent the State from making any provisions in favour of the members of SC/ST for relaxation in qualifying marks with respect to examination/job/promotion.

    The Constitution (83rd Amendment) Act, 2000: The Act amended Article 243 M to provide that no reservation in Panchayats be made in favour of SC/ST in Arunachal Pradesh where the whole population is tribal.
    Last edited by ani; 10-11-2012 at 05:31 PM.
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  7. #4
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    Amendments to The Constitution-Important

    The first Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution was made in the year 1951
    According to it, Articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 376 were amended and Articles 31A and 3IB inserted and Ninth Schedule was added.

    The Constitution (24th Amendment) Act, 1971: It affirmed the power of the Parliament to amend any part of the Constitution. After this amendment, the President is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill. Education was transferred to the Concurrent List by this amendment.

    The Constitution (36th Amendment) Act, 1975: By this Act, Sikkim became the 22nd State of the Indian Union.

    The Constitution (39th Amendment) Act, 1975: The Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha on August 7 and received Presidential assent on August 9,1975. The Act places beyond challenge in courts the election to Parliament of a person holding the office of Prime Minister or Speaker and the election of President and Vice-President.

    The Constitution (52nd Amendment) Act, 1985: The Act has made defection to another party, after elections illegal. Any member defecting to another party after elections will be disqualified from being member of Parliament or State Legislature.

    The Constitution (53rd Amendment) Act, 1986: It confers Statehood on Mizoram and ensures against unnecessary interference by the Central Government with the laws relating to spheres of social relationship and community conduct applicable to Mizoram.

    The Constitution (55th Amendment) Act, 1987: It grants Statehood to Arunachal Pradesh which consequently became the 24th State of the Indian Union.

    The Constitution (56th Amendment) Act, 1987: It confers Statehood on Goa and forms a new Union Territory of Daman and Diu. Goa thus became the 25th State of the Indian Republic.

    The Constitution (57th Amendment) Act, 1987: It made a special provision for the setting up of the new State of Goa. Consequently Daman and Diu were separated from the former to form a Union Territory.

    The Constitution (59th Amendment) Act, 1988: It empowered the Central Government to impose Emergency in Punjab when deemed necessary. Under the amendment, President’s rule can be extended upto three years. Earlier maximum period was two years.

    The Constitution (61st Amendment) Act, 1989: It lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.

    The Constitution (62nd Amendment) Act, 1989: It provided for the extension by another 10 years of reservation of seats in the Parliament and State Assemblies for the Scheduled Castes and Tribes and reservation for Anglo Indian community by nomination.

    The Constitution (64th Amendment) Act, 1990: It extended the President’s rule in Punjab by six months.

    The Constitution (66th Amendment) Act, 1990: To bring land reforms within the purview of 9th Schedule of the Constitution.

    The Constitution (69th Amendment) Act, 1991: Delhi made National Capital Region. The Act also made provision for Legislative assembly and a council of ministers for Delhi.

    The Constitution (70th Amendment) Act, 1992: Before this act was made Article 54 relating to the election of the President provided for an electoral college consisting only of the elected members of Parliament as well as the legislative assemblies of the States (not of Union Territories). The amendment provide for inclusion of members of legislature of Pondicherry and Delhi.

    The Constitution (71st Amendment) Act, 1992: The act amends the 8th Schedule to the Constitution to include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali Languages in the 8th Schedule of the Constitution.

    The Constitution (72nd Amendment) Act, 1992: To make temporary provision for the determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the State assembly of Tripura, until the re-adjustment of seats is made on the basis of the first census after the year 2000 under article 170 of the Constitution.

    The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992: To ensure direct election to all seats in Panchayats; to reserve seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their population; and for reservation of not less than one third of the seats in Panchayats for women.

    The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992: was made to ensure direct election to all seats in Nagarpalikas and Municipalities.


    The Constitution (76th Amendment) Act, 1994: It relates to the Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutes and of appointments or posts in the Services under a State, for Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Supreme Court had ruled on November 16, 1992, that the total reservations under Article 16(40) of the Constitution should not exceed 50 per cent.
    The Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995: According to this Act, the Government have decided to continue the existing policy of reservation in promotion for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

    The Constitution (78th Amendment) Act, 1995: It includes land reform laws in the Ninth Schedule so that they cannot be challenged before the courts.

    The Constitution (79th Amendment) Act, 1999: It extends the reservation of seats for SC, ST and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for next 10 years.

    The Constitution (81st Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that the unfilled vacancies of a year reserved for SC/ST kept for being filled up in a year as per Article 16, shall be considered separately for filling vacancies in the succeeding year and the previous list will not be considered for filling the 50% quota of the respective year.

    The Constitution (82nd Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that nothing in the Article 355 shall prevent the State from making any provisions in favour of the members of SC/ST for relaxation in qualifying marks with respect to examination/job/promotion.
    The Constitution (83rd Amendment) Act, 2000: The Act amended Article 243 M to provide that no reservation in Panchayats be made in favour of SC/ST in Arunachal Pradesh where the whole population is tribal.
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    The Emergency Amendments i.e. 42,43,44

    The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976: It was enacted during the period of internal emergency. It was passed by Parliament on November 11, 1976 and received Presidential assent on December 18, 1976.
    The Amendment established beyond doubt the supremacy of Parliament over the other wings of Government; gave the Directive Principles precedence over the Fundamental Rights; enumerated for the first time a set of ten Fundamental Duties. It further imposed limits on the power and jurisdiction of the judiciary; raised the term of the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha from five to six years; authorised the use of Central armed forces in any State to deal with law and order problems, made the President bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers and envisaged the establishment of administrative tribunals for service matters of Government employees and also other tribunals for economic offences. The Act also clearly laid down that no Constitutional Amendment could be questioned in any court of law.

    The Constitution (43rd Amendment) Act, 1978: It received the Presidential assent on April 13, 1978. This Act repeals the obnoxious provisions of the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act passed during the Emergency. It restores civil liberties by deleting Article 3ID which gave powers to Parliament to curtail even legitimate trade union activity under the guise of legislation for the prevention of anti-national activities. The new law, which was ratified by more than half of the States in accordance with the Constitution, also restores legislative powers to the States to make appropriate provision for anti-national activities consistent with the Fundamental Rights. Under the Act, the judiciary has also been restored to its rightful place. The Supreme Court will now have power to invalidate State laws, a power taken away by the 42nd Amendment Act. The High Courts will also be able to go into the question of constitutional validity of Central laws thereby enabling persons living in distant places to obtain speedy justice without having to come to the Supreme Court.

    The Constitution (44th Amendment) Act, 1978: The Constitution (45 th Amendment) Bill, re-numbered as the 44th Amendment came into force on April 30, 1979, when the President gave his assent. The Act removes major distortions in the Constitution introduced during the Emergency. The duration of the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies has been reduced from six to five years—the normal term which was extended during the Emergency under the 42nd Amendment to achieve some political purposes. The Right to Property ceases to be a Fundamental Right and becomes only a legal right according to the Constitution 44th Amendment. The Act also extends, for the first time since independence, constitutional protection for publication of the proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures, except in cases where it is proved to be “malicious”. Another important feature of the Act is that any proclamation of Emergency need henceforward, be issued by the President only after receiving the advice of the Cabinet as a whole in writing. The President will not be called upon to act on the basis of advice by the Prime Minister on his own without consulting his Cabinet. Other safeguards provide that the proclamation will have to be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the members of both Houses of Parliament within a month. The 44th Amendment provides safeguards against future subversion of the Constitution for establishing an authoritarian regime. It contains provisions which are designed to make it impossible to impose the kind of emergency the country had experienced for 19 months.
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  11. #6
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    Constitution Knowledge and list of schedules to constitution

    Important points of Indian constitution

    It is the largest written legal document in the world.

    It took 2 years, 11 months and 17 days to complete the text of constitution.

    Initially it contained 395 articles and 8 Schedules.

    Sachchidanand Sinha was the first chairman of the constituent Assembly ( it consisted of elected member of legislative assembly).

    Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent chairman of constituent assembly.

    Dr B.R.Ambedkar was the chairman of the drafting committee and was assisted by B.N.Rau who created the draft of constitution of India.

    The draft of the constitution was approved on 26th November 1949 and hence it is observed as Law day.

    National Anthem was adopted on 24th January 1950 whereas National Flag was adopted on July 22nd 1947,
    India has a Quasi Federal structure.

    In India there are three levels of government one at center, one at state and one at Local. In case of emergency the central government gains control over the nation.

    Preamble

    India is a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic.

    Sovereign means India is an independent country.

    Socialist Pattern is an economic pattern where both public and private sector work together under Government’s control.
    Secularism means no fixed religion and respect for all religion.

    Democratic means that the government which is of the people by the people and for the people.
    Republic means people select the head of government directly or indirectly.

    Preamble embodies the noble concept of :
    Justice in social, economic and political aspects.
    Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship.
    Equality of status and opportunity
    Fraternity assuring dignity, unity and integrity to all the citizens of the nation.

    Note: the concept of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity is adopted from French revolution.
    Constitution is amended once during 42nd amendment where the words Socialist and Secular were added.

    Note: the above mentioned points can be asked in CLAT and there are instances where it has been asked. Please check the paper of CLAT 2012 and get the idea about how questions can be formed from the above points. The thread also contains a file which is attached to it and the files contains information about all the 12 Schedules of the Indian Constitution.
    Attached Files
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  13. #7
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    Article 14 of the Indian Constitution (intelligible differentia and the the object sought to be achieved)

    Equality is one the magnificent corner stones of the Indian Democracy. Article 14 guarantees to every person the right to equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws. The first expression is a declaration of equality of all persons within territory of India, implying thereby the absence of any privilege in favour of any individual. The second one directs that equal protection shall be secured to all persons within the territorial jurisdiction of the union in the enjoyment of their rights and privileges without favouritism or discrimination. The guiding principle of this Article is that all persons and things similarly circumstanced shall be treated alike both in respect of privileges conferred and liabilities imposed. Equality before the law, means that amongst equals should be equal and equally administered and that like should be treated alike. Hence what it forbids is discrimination between persons who are substantially in similar circumstances or conditions. It does not forbid different treatment of unequals. The rule is rather that like should be treated alike and that unlike should be treated differently. As a matter of fact all persons are not alike or equal in all respects. Application of the same laws uniformly to all of them will, therefore, be inconsistent with the principal of equality. To avoid that situation laws must distinguish between those who are equals and to whom they must apply and those who are different and to whom they should not apply.

    It is now accepted that persons may be classified into groups and such groups may be treated differently if there is a reasonable basis for such difference. Article 14 forbids class legislation; it does not forbid classification or differentiation which rests upon reasonable grounds of distinction. The principle of equality does not mean that every law must have universal application to all the persons who are not by nature, attainment or circumstances in the same position. The varying needs of different classes of persons require different treatment. In order to pass the test for permissible classification two conditions must be fulfilled, namely: (1) the classification must be founded on an intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or things that are grouped together from others left out of the group, and (2) the differentia must have a rational nexus with the object sought to be achieved by the statute in question.

    What is however necessary is that there must be a substantial basis for making the classification and the there should be a nexus between the basis of classification and the object of the statute under consideration. In other words, there must be some rational nexus between the basis of classification and the object intended to achieved.

    The expression “intelligible differentia” means difference capable of being understood. A factor that distinguishes or in different state or class from another which is capable of being understood. The impugned act deals with users of social networking websites Test laid down in State of West Bengal v. Anwar Ali Sarkar i.e. the differentia or classification must have a rational nexus with the object sought to be achieved by the statute in questionSupreme Court in many of its judgment has clearly indicated about such kinds of classifications as vague and inoperative. The Supreme Court in landmark judgment of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India clearly ruled out the room for arbitrariness. ‘Article 14 strikes at arbitrariness in State action and ensures fairness and equality of treatment. The principle of reasonableness, which logically as well as philosophically, is an essential element of equality or non-arbitrariness, pervades Article 14 like a brooding omnipresence.’ Rule of law which permeates the entire fabric of the Indian Constitution excludes arbitrariness. Wherever we find arbitrariness or unreasonableness there is denial there is denial of rule of law.

    This new dimension of Art.14 transcends the classificatory principle. Art.14 is no longer to be equated with the principle of classification. It is primarily a guarantee against arbitrariness in state action and the doctrine of classification has been evolved only as a subsidiary rule for testing whether a particular state action is arbitrary or not. If a law is arbitrary or irrational it would fall foul of Art.14. As an example, it has been held that any penalty disproportionate to the gravity of the misconduct would be violative of Art.14. So the impugned act should be tested at the touchstone of Art. 13(2) and should be declared invalid.

    Article 14 Permits Classification But Prohibits Class Legislation
    The equal protection of laws guaranteed by Article 14 does not mean that all laws must be general in character. It does not mean that the same laws should apply to all persons. It does not attainment or circumstances in the same position. The varying need of different classes of persons often requires separate treatment. From the very nature of society there should be different laws in different places and the legitimate controls the policy and enacts laws in the best interest of the safety and security of the state. In fact identical treatment in unequal circumstances would amount to inequality. So a reasonable classification is only not permitted but is necessary if society is to progress.
    Thus what Article 14 forbids is class-legislation but it does not forbid reasonable classification. The classification however must not be “arbitrary, artificial or evasive” but must be based on some real and substantial bearing a just and reasonable relation to the object sought to be achieved by the legislation. Article 14 applies where equals are treated differently without any reasonable basis. But where equals and unequal are treated differently, Article 14 does not apply. Class legislation is that which makes an improper discrimination by conferring particular privileges upon a class of persons arbitrarily selected from a large number of persons all of whom stand in the same relation to the privilege granted that between whom and the persons not so favored no reasonable distinction or substantial difference can be found justifying the inclusion of one and the exclusion of the other from such privilege.

    Test Of Reasonable Classification
    While Article 14 forbids class legislation it does not forbid reasonable classification of persons, objects, and transactions by the legislature for the purpose of achieving specific ends. But classification must not be “arbitrary, artificial or evasive”. It must always rest upon some real upon some real and substantial distinction bearing a just and reasonable relation to the object sought to be achieved by the legislation. Classification to be reasonable must fulfill the following two conditions
    Firstly the classification must be founded on the intelligible differentia which distinguishes persons or thing that are grouped together from others left out of the group
    Secondly the differentia must have a rational relation to the object sought to be achieved by the act.

    The differentia which is the basis of the classification and the object of the act are two distinct things. What is necessary is that there must be nexus between the basis of classification and the object of the act which makes the classification. It is only when there is no reasonable basis for a classification that legislation making such classification may be declared discriminatory. Thus the legislature may fix the age at which persons shall be deemed competent to contract between themselves but no one will claim that competency. No contract can be made to depend upon the stature or colour of the hair. Such a classification will be arbitrary.


    The true meaning and scope of Article 14 have been explained in a number of cases by the supreme court. In view of this the propositions laid down in Damia case still hold good governing a valid classification and are as follows
    :
    1. A law may be constitutional even though it relates to a single individual if on account of some special circumstances or reasons applicable to him and not applicable to others, that single individual may be treated as a class by itself
    2. There is always presumption in favour of the constitutionality of a statute and the burden is upon him who attacks it to show that there has been a clear transgression of constitutional principles.

    3. The presumption may be rebutted in certain cases by showing that on the fact of the statue, there is no classification and no difference peculiar to any individual or class and not applicable to any other individual or class, and yet the law hits only a particular individual or class
    4. It must be assumed that Legislature correctly understand and appreciates the need of its own people that its law are directed to problem made manifest by experience and that its discrimination are based on adequate grounds
    5. In order to sustain the presumption of constitutionality the court may take into consideration maters of common knowledge, matters of report, the history of the times and may assume every state of facts which can be conceived existing at the time of the legislation.

    6. Thus the legislation is free to recognize degrees of harm and may confine its restriction to those cases where the need is deemed to be the clearest.
    7. While good faith and knowledge of the existing conditions on the part of a legislature are to be presumed, if there is nothing on the face of the law or the surrounding circumstances brought to the notice of the court on which the classification may reasonable be regarded as based, the presumption of constitutionality cannot be carried to extent always that there must be some undisclosed and unknown reason for subjecting certain individuals or corporation to be hostile or discriminating legislation
    8. The classification may be made on different bases e.g. geographical or according to object or occupation or the like.
    9. The classification made by the legislature need not be scientifically perfect or logically complete. Mathematical nicety and perfect equality are not required. Equality before the law does not require mathematical equality of all persons in all circumstances. Equal treatment does not mean identical treatment. Similarly not identity of treatment is enough.

    10. There can be discrimination both in the substantive as well as the procedural law. Article 14 applies to both. If the classification satisfies the test laid down in the above propositions, the law will be declared constitutional. The question whether a classification is reasonable and proper and not must however, be judged more on commonsense than on legal subtitles.

    More Cases


    Ø D.S. Nakara v. Union Of India
    The Government issued an office memorandum announcing a liberalized pension scheme for retired government servants but made it applicable to those who had retired after 31 March 1979. The supreme court held that the fixing of the cutoff date to be discriminatory as violating Article 14. The division of pensioners into two classes on the basis of the date of retirement was not based on any rational principle because a difference of two days in the matter of retirement could have a traumatic effect on the pensioner. Such a classification held to be arbitrary and unprincipled as there was no acceptable or persuasive reason in its favor. The said classification had no rational nexus with the object sought to achieve.

    ØMadhu Limaye v. Supdt. Tihar Jail Delhi
    There were Indian and Europian Prisoners. Both were treated differently. European gets better diet. Court held that difference between Indian and European prisoners in the matter of treatment and diet violates right to equality under Article 14 of Indian prisoners. They all are prisoners they must treat equally.

    Ø Sanaboina Satyanarayan v. Govt. of A.P In Andra Pradesh. They formulated a scheme for prevention of crime against women. In prisons also prisoners were classify in to two categories. First, Prisoners guilty of crime against women and second, prisoners who are not guilty of crime against women. Prisoners who are guilty of crime against women challenge the court saying that there right to equality are deprived. Court held that there is reasonable classification to achieve some objective.
    Last edited by utkarshrivast; 12-20-2012 at 12:58 AM.
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    Article 16 of the Indian Constitution

    Article 16 of the Constitution is part of the Fundamental Rights and provides for equality in the matters of employment in public employment. Many people feel that this Article, instead of equality in these matters, perpetuates the inequalities and offers a framework of contradiction. The Fundamental Rights should ideally provide the measures vide which the equality is ensured but the exceptions provided to this right overweigh the right provided.
    Article 16 provides that there shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in the matters of employment or appointment to any office under the State. This Article also provides that no citizen shall be ineligible for any office or employment under the State on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth or any of them. After having stated the above, several exceptions are also provided for. Place of residence may be laid down by the legislature as a condition for particular classes of employment or appointment in any State or any local authority. Further, the State may reserve any post or appointment in favour of any backward class of citizens, who, in the opinion of the State, are not adequately represented in the services under that State. In addition, the offices connected with the religious or denominated institutions may be reserved for the members practicing that particular religion.

    The most important and controversial exception pertains to the provisions of Article 16(4) relating to the claims of the members of the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe communities in the matters of appointment to the services and posts under the Union and the States, to be consistent with efficiency in administration as far as possible (Article 335). The Supreme Court has held that while the provisions of Article 16(4) are without any limitation upon the power of reservation, yet it has to be read with the provisions of Article 335 for maintenance of efficiency in administration. The Apex Court also held that the total reservation under Article 16(4) should not exceed 50 per cent.

    Detailed study of the provisions of the Article 16 reveals that while originally this Article aimed at protecting the rights of common man with regard to equality of opportunity but gradually, due to the need felt by the government to extend the benefit of reservation to the other backward classes and also the political considerations, its focus has now shifted to providing the benefit of reservation to the backward classes and the SC/ST. But one thing has been confirmed that the extension of the benefit cannot be arbitrary.

    Various pronouncements of the Supreme Court of India during the past almost six decades have plugged the gaps in the provisions of this Article and also provided a standard framework for extending the benefit of reservation in future to any other categories. The measures that looked to be controversial initially have also been settled by the judgments of the highest court of law in the country.
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  17. #9
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    Article 17 and the Prevention of Atrocities Act

    The term Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe is a defined legal term. It was adopted in 1935, when the British listed the lowest caste and tribes of the Hindus into a Schedule appended to the Government of India Act for the purpose of statutory safeguard and to protect their interest. The concept of “Schedule” caste and tribes is relevant only in the context of statutory provisions, government programs and politics.
    Outside this context there is no “Schedule” caste or tribes. In a population as diverse as India, the Schedule Caste and Tribes comprise of nearly 40% of the population as per the last census. Born into numerous communities, each with its own identities, traditions, but one common problem, that of being suppressed for centuries. They have never earned the status of equals in society.
    The democratic traditions which developed in the last two centuries have upheld the lofty principles of “Equality before the Law”. The principle itself is a great leap forward towards humanity. For it recognizes that all men and women are equal in sight of the law. It transcends all narrow restrictions which separate people into high and low. However, it took a long time for people to realize that the recognition of a principle in itself does not ensure its practice, namely, that the de jure concept is different from its de facto application.
    The Indian Constitution guarantees the right to equality and justice, and this is to extend to every citizen of the country under the Fundamental Rights which are guaranteed to them. But even to this date, Untouchability is a prevalent practice which rears its ugly head in modern India, despite Article 17 of the Constitution having abolished the practice of untouchability. It is a well known fact that untouchability is practiced unabated in rural areas, although there has been some change in cities. Even after 55 years of the Constitution being in force India has failed in the implementation of a fundamental right enshrined in the Constitution.
    The cure is part of the cause in this case; as Dalits avail themselves of the advantages of reservation in India, and awareness of rights increases, the status quo of inter-caste relations in villages faces severe challenges. Increased violence, and increased reporting of incidents of violence, is a natural product. Although Dalit groups have had great success in gaining publicity for their cause, they have consistently failed to hold the Indian government to the standards of existing national and international legislation. There is, in fact, a law in place to fight the violence being visited upon Dalits, but it suffers from neglect.

    In 1989, the Government of India passed the Prevention of Atrocities Act (“POA”), which delineates specific crimes against Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes as “atrocities,” and describes strategies and prescribes punishments to counter these acts. POA attempts to curb and punish violence against Dalits through three broad means. Firstly, it identifies what acts constitute “atrocities.” These include both particular incidents of harm and humiliation such as the forced consumption of noxious substances, as well as the systemic violence faced by many Dalits, especially in rural areas. Such systemic violence includes forced labour, denial of access to water and other public amenities, and sexual abuse of Dalit women. Secondly, POA calls upon all the states to convert an existing sessions court in each district into a special court to try cases registered under the POA. Thirdly, POA creates provisions for states to declare areas with high levels of caste violence to be “atrocity-prone” and to appoint qualified officers to monitor and maintain law and order.

    The objective of POA is also to break away from caste system. As the caste system is a curse in our society ,the sooner it is destroyed the better. The caste system is an outdated feudal institution which has weakened our country because it disunites us. Hence, the sooner it is done away with the better, so that India emerges not just as a modern, powerful, industrial State but also shows that there are no “unequals among its equals.” The time has come for India to show that justice must not only be done but must be seen and experienced by its people to be done.
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    Constitution of India - Articles Chart

    In this section of India Facts we discuss about Constitution of India - Articles. You get all the articles i.e. Part I to Part XXII, in details. In these Part I to Part XXII you will learn about 395 articles. Article 123 explains about the legislative powers of the President and article 213 is for the legislative powers of the Governor. Article 300A is important for everyone because it explains about Right to Property. Check out yourself all the articls under different chapters and Parts.

    Part I - consists of Articles 1 - 4 on the Union and its Territory
    Part II - consists of Articles 5 - 11 on Citizenship.
    Part III - consists of Articles 12 - 35 on Fundamental Rights.
    • Articles 14 - 18 on Right to Equality,
    • Articles 19 - 22 on Right to Freedom,
    • Articles 23 - 24 on Right against Exploitation,
    • Articles 25 - 28 on Right to Freedom of Religion,
    • Articles 29 - 31 on Cultural and Educational Rights,
    • Articles 32 - 35 on Right to Constitutional Remedies.
    Part IV - consists of Articles 36 - 51 on Directive Principles of State Policy.
    Part IV (A) consists of Article 51A - Fundamental Duties of each citizen of India.
    Part V - consists of Articles on the Union.
    Chapter I - Articles 52 to 78 on The Executive.
    • Articles 52 - 73 on the President and Vice-President,
    • Articles 74 - 75 on Council of Ministers,
    • Articles 76 - Attorney General of India,
    • Articles 77 - 78 on the Conduct of Government Business
    Chapter II - Articles 79 - 122 on Parliament.
    • Articles 79 - 88 on Constitution of Parliament,
    • Articles 89 - 98 on Officers of Parliament,
    • Articles 99 - 100 on Conduct of Business,
    • Articles 101 - 104 on Disqualification of members,
    • Articles 105 - 106 on Powers, privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members,
    • Articles 107 - 111 on Legislative Procedure,
    • Articles 112 - 117 on Procedure in Financial Matters,
    • Articles 118 - 122 on Procedure Generally.


    Chapter III - Article 123 on the Legislative Powers of the President.
    • Article 123 on Power of president to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament
    Chapter IV - Articles 124 - 147 on The Union Judiciary.
    • Articles 124 - 147 Establishment and Constitution of Supreme Court
    Chapter V - Articles 148 - 151 on the Controller and Auditor-General of India.
    • Articles 148 - 151 on Duties and powers of Comptroller and Auditor-General.
    Part VI - Articles on the States.

    Chapter I - Article 152 on the General definition of a State of the Union of India
    • Article 152 - Exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir from the general definition of a state of the Union of India.
    Chapter II - Articles 153 - 167 on The Executive
    • Articles 153 - 162 on The Governor,
    • Articles 163 - 164 on The Council of Ministers,
    • Article 165 on the Advocate-General for the State.
    • Articles 166 - 167 on the Conduct of Government Business.
    Chapter III - Articles 168 - 212 on The State Legislature.
    • Articles 168 - 177 General
    • Articles 178 - 187 on the Officers of the State Legislature,
    • Articles 188 - 189 on Conduct of Business,
    • Articles 190 - 193 on Disqualification of members,
    • Articles 194 - 195 on Powers, Privileges and Immunities Parliament and its Members,
    • Articles 196 - 201 on Legislative Procedure,
    • Articles 202 - 207 on Procedure in Financial Matters,
    • Articles 208 - 212 on Procedure Generally.
    Chapter IV - Article 213 on the Legislative Powers of the Governor
    • Article 213 - Power of president to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament
    Chapter V - Articles 214 - 231 on The High Courts in the States.
    • Articles 214 - 231 on High Courts in the States,
    Chapter VI - Articles 233 - 237 on the Subordinate Courts
    • Articles 232 - 237 on Subordinate Courts
    Part VII - consists of Articles on States in the B part of the First schedule.
    • Article 238 Repealed, Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.
    Part VIII - consists of Articles on The Union Territories
    • Articles 239 - 242 Administration, creation of Council of Ministers and High Courts
    Part IX - consists of Articles on the Panchayat system.
    • Articles 243 - 243O on the Gram Sabha and Panchayat system
    Part IXA - consists of Articles on Municipalities.
    • Articles 243P - 243ZG on Municipalities
    Part X - consists of Articles on the scheduled and Tribal Areas
    • Articles 244 - 244A on Administration, creation of Council of Ministers, and legislatures.
    Part XI - consists of Articles on Relations between the Union and the States.

    Chapter I - Articles 245 - 255 on the Distribution of Legislative Powers
    • Articles 245 - 255 on Distribution of Legislative Relations
    Chapter II - Articles 256 - 263 on Administrative Relations
    • Articles 256 - 261 - General
    • Article 262 - on Disputes relating to waters.
    • Article 263 - on Co-ordination between States
    Part XII - consists of Articles on Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits

    Chapter I - Articles 264 - 291 on Finance
    • Articles 264 - 267 General
    • Articles 268 - 281 on Distribution Revenues between the Union and the States
    • Articles 282 - 291 on Miscellaneous Financial Provisions
    Chapter II - Articles 292 - 293 on Borrowing
    • Articles 292 - 293 on Borrowing by States
    Chapter III - Articles 294 - 300 on Property, Contracts, Right, Liabilities, Obligations and Suits
    • Articles 294 - 300 on Succession to property assets, liabilities, and obligations.
    Chapter IV - Article 300A on the Right to Property
    • Article 300A - on Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law
    Part XIII - consists of Articles on Trade and Commerce within the territory of India
    • Articles 301 - 305 on Freedom of Trade and Commerce, and the power of Parliament and States to impose restrictions on the same
    • Article 306 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.
    • Article 307 - Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304.
    Part XIV - consists of Articles on Services Under the Union and the States

    Chapter I - Articles 308 - 314 on Services
    • Articles 308 - 313 on Services
    • Article 314 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1972, s. 3 (w.e.f. 29-8-1972).
    Chapter II - Articles 315 - 323 on the Public Service Commissions
    • Articles 315 - 323 on Public Service Commissions
    Part XIVA - consists of Articles on Tribunals
    • Articles 323 A - 323 B
    Part XV - consists of Articles on Elections
    • Articles 324 - 329 on Elections
    • Article 329A - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, s. 36 (w.e.f. 20-6-1979).
    Part XVI - consists of Articles on Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes.
    • Articles 330 - 342 on Reservations
    Part XVII - consists of Articles on Official Language
    Chapter I - Articles 343 - 344 on Language of the Union
    • Articles 343 - 344 Official Language of the Union
    Chapter II - Articles 345 - 347 on Regional Languages
    • Articles 345 - 347 on Language of the State
    Chapter III - Articles 348 - 349 on Language of the Supreme Court, High courts, Etc
    • Articles 348 - 349 on Language used in Supreme Court, High courts Etc
    Chapter IV - Articles 350 - 351 on Special Directives
    • Article 350 - on Language to be used in representations forredress of grievances.
    • Article 350A - on Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.
    • Article 350B - on provision for Special Officer for linguistic minorities.
    • Article 351 - on Directive for development of the Hindi language.
    Part XVIII - consists of Articles on Emergency Provisions
    • Articles 352 - 359 on Emergency Provisions
    • Article 359A - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act, 1989, s. 3 (w.e.f. 6-1-1990)
    • Article 360 - on Provisions as to financial emergency.
    Part XIX - Miscellaneous
    • Articles 361 - 361A - Miscellaneous
    • Article 362 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2.
    • Articles 363 - 367 - Miscellaneous .
    Part XX - consists of Articles on Amendment of the Constitution
    • · Articles 368 on the Power of parliament to amend the constitution and procedure therefor
    Part XXI - consists of Articles on Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
    • Articles 369 - 378A on Temporary, Transitional and Special Provisions
    • Article 379 - 391 - Repealed - Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956,s. 29 and Sch.
    • Article 392 - on the Power of the President to remove difficulties.
    Part XXII consists of Articles on short title, date of commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals.
    • Articles 393 - 395 Commencement, authoritative text in Hindi and repeals
    "I am the master of my fate, I am the captain of my soul"
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